Ceramic vessel 35-4. Las Calañas.

Ceramic vessel 35-4 (Section F, second phase) of the Iberian agrarian factory of La Calañas (Marmolejo, Jaén, Spain). Oxidasing atmosphere. It is decorated with black and red lines. The red color was manufactured using hematite (Fe2O3) in high concentration: 14.80%wt of Fe according to EDXRF analysis).This leads to consider an extra addition of hematite in the clay mixture used in the decoration.
The Raman spectrum of the black decoration was inconclusive. EDXRF of the black color shows a significant concentration of Mn: 0.98% wt versus 0.06% wt in the ceramic paste.

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: 5 Centimeters

: 4 Centimeters




: Orientalising, Iberians, Iberian

: Late 7th ct. BC-early 6th ct. BC


: Las Calañas

: Marmolejo, Jaén, Spain

: WGS84



Creative Commons - Attribution, Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (BY-NC-ND)


Tuñón, J.A., Sánchez, A., Parras, D.J., Vandenabeele, P. and Montejo, M. (2016): Micro-Raman spectroscopy on Iberian archaeological material”. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy. 47: 1514-1521.

Molinos, M., Rísquez, C., Serrano, J L. y Montilla, S. (1994): Un problema de fronteras en la periferia de Tartessos: Las Calañas de Marmolejo. Jaén: Universidad de Jaén.

Digital Resources


Archaeometric analysis

Physical-chemical analysis

Ceramic. Analysis of decoration.

University Research Center for Iberian Archaeology

Raman Microscopy

Mineral analysis of the red decoration.

Non destructive. Surface cleaning. Sample pretreatment is not required. Direct measurement.

Micro-Raman Spectroscopy (MRS)

Renishaw ‘in via’ Reflex Spectrometer coupled with a confocal Leica DM LM microscope (CICT, University of Jaén), equipped with a diode laser (785 nm, 300 mW), and a Peltier-cooled CCD detector, calibrated to the 520.5 cm-1 line of silicon.

X-Ray Fluorescence

Elemental analysis of the red and black decoration.

Non destructive. Surface cleaning. Sample pretreatment is not required. Direct measurement.

Energy dispersive X- ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

EDAX (model Eagle III) fluorescence spectrometer (CITI, University of Seville). This spectrometer is equipped with a microfocus X-ray tube with an Rh anode, a polycapillary lens for X-ray focussing, and an 80 mm2 energy dispersive Si-(Li) detector. The sample chamber incorporates an XYZ motorized stage for sample positioning. A high resolution microscope is used to position the sample on the desired distance from the polycapillary. To increase the sensitivity of the low Z elements, the sample chamber can be brought under vacuum. For the analysis of the samples, a spot size of 300 μm was chosen at an operating X-ray tube voltage of 40 kV. The tube current was adapted for each sample in order to optimise the detection of X-rays;


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